• Category Archives The Renaissance
  • Renaissance’s artistic periods and artists

    Renaissance’s artistic periods and artists

    Early Renaissance

    The early Renaissance was ranging from the year 1420 until 1500 and gathers many artists, including architects, painters and sculptors who were the initial promoters of the stylistic reform in Italy. They are starting to sign their works openly and also feel highly inspired by the painters of the late Gothic period whose works were showing the way of the new humanist thought nascent, as it was the case of Van Eyck or the Limbourg brother’s.

     

    Limbourg

     

    The beginning of the Renaissance in the city of Florence in Italy coincides with the late period of the Gothic in Europe. The Italian cities gradually joint this humanist current and although at this early stage of the Renaissance still remain Gothic elements; the artists are routed to search for technical solutions that enable them to represent their works with the new aesthetic conception.

    Among the featured artists is noteworthy to mention the exceptional artists Filipo Brunelleschi. (1377-1446) and Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone: (Masaccio) (1401-1428), who, the first in architecture and the second in painting marked milestones successes finding practical solutions to technical problems in art. This solutions opened new possibilities and the rebirth of man expression in art.

     

    Sandro Botticelli, Magnificat, 1480–81, tempera on panel, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
    Sandro Botticelli, Magnificat, 1480–81, tempera on panel, Uffizi Gallery, Florence

     

    The Renaissance philosophical thought and artistic style initially encounter opinions against it and was accused of being the Liberals and Neo-pagans style, but the uncompromising pursuit of the Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) could not stop the progress of mankind thinking towards modern tendencies and acute transformation. To gradually get rid of the bondage of the guilds of craftsmen and become individuals artists with humanistic trend-based they devoted to learn and works from the classicism and perfection of Greek and Roman art antiquity.

    The new “Cult of Fame” helps them to have a large clientele that wants to be immortalized in pictures or sculptures or who want to show their respects for the prominent successful figures. They make for instances beautiful and valuable objects to decorate the palaces or social centers’ for the affluent class who was eager to display their wealth and power.

     

    Donatello

     

    They works in this period are therefore proportionate, measured, and attached to Greek and Roman classicism dogmas, but also possess the pride of a successful man who wants to show its reality as it. In that sense, there is a takeoff from the pure aesthetics of the Greek idealism, becoming their works more realistic and very detail, like if they were to come alive in front the eyes of the viewer’s.

    The traits of the characters are identical to the models; no matter if they were ugly or beautiful, even the temperaments or the emotions that were being represented were explicitly indicated for better communication with the Spectator. They were not however exempt of veiled signs or hidden messages intended to be understood by a cult audience.

     

    Spring

     

    Characters and scenes were not perfect and idealized, but realistic and perfect. Many artists are noted for their talent and personal style which ranks them as prominent artists in demand, who will in turn become teachers or mentors; as Verrocchio, who was Leonardo Da Vinci teacher.

     

    Painters, sculptors and architects in Early Renaissance.

    Here are some of the most important.

    – Philip Brunelleschi. (1377-1446)

    – Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi.(Donatello) (1386-1466)

    – Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Sandro Botticelli) (1445-1510)

    – Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone: (Masaccio) (1401-1428)

    – Domenico di Ghirlandaio. (1449-1494)

    – Piero de la Francesca (1415-1492)

    – Andrea di Michelle di Francesco de’ Cioni. (Andrea Verrocchio)(1435-1488)

    – Lorenzo di Bartolo. (Lorenzo Ghiberti). (1378-1455)

    – Agostino di Duccio. (1418-1481)

    – Fra. Angelico (Fra. Giovanni di Fiesole (1395-1455)

    – Paolo Uccello (1397-1475)

    – Alesso Baldovinetti (1425-1499)

    Desiderio de Bartolomeo di Francesco detto Ferro (Desiderio da Settignano) 1428-1464)

    – Lucca della Robbia (1400-1482)

    Domenico Veneziano (1410-1461)

    – Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506)

    – Antonio Rossellino. (1427-1479)

    – Bertoldo di Giovanni. (14 1491)

    – Antonio di Pollaiolo. (1433-1498)

    – Andrea di Castagno. (1423-1457)

     

    High Renaissance

    In High Renaissance period roughly (1475-1525) the papacy in Rome also assumes the role of patronage. After a period of hesitation in which they still did not accept the radical change of thinking, Church has no other option that conforms and get to good terms with this unstoppable humanist current. Desirous of having the services of prestigious artists, they commissioned decoration of salons in papal buildings, funerary monuments and other religious buildings to painters and important sculptors representing the pinnacle of artistic talent of that era, among them: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci and Titian.

    They performed works also commissioned by patrons or important public figures such as the Medici family, which by then controlled the Italian finance and whose influence stretched as well to the rest of Europe. Politics stability recent established in different regions allowed powerful families to act as patrons of the arts enabling this one to flourish.

     

    Magdalena -LeonX

     

    The art of the Renaissance expands throughout Europe in this period known as the High Renaissance, but fundamentally accommodates itself very well in (France, England, Germany and Spain). This art answer effectively to the bourgeois society needs, who was seeking to surround themselves with comfort, and with means to express its refinement and power as already established successful class.

     

    Young Hare

     

    A great interest in nature and the animal world are illustrated in the sketches of artists as Alberto Durero; dominant figure of the German Renaissance who represent elements of the figures in detail. As a scientist and artist his paintings, drawings, engravings and theoretical writings on art exerted a profound influence on the artists of the 16th century in his own country and also in the Netherlands with artists such as Hans Holbein the younger and Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553).

     

    Nymph

     

    Figures of heroes and legends are revived with vivacity and tangible realisms in works of unquestionable talent, which seem as if they were prompted to come alive and gain movement. In them the human figure; as in the case of the Michelangelo’s David (made life-size), express the detailed study of the forms of the body, its curves, veins, natural legs and hips flex. Miguel Angel manages to represent the action, the drama of the moment trough simple elements like the hands gesture or the tense expectant face expression.

     

    David-Pieta

     

    He was also the author of the Sistine Chapel vault decoration and in this supernal creation reflects his knowledge of the human body as it did when he sculpted. Michelangelo Buonarroti was the first artist who could represent this chapter of the Bible about the creation in a surprising painting with realism and detailed work, entirely based on the poses, dramatic gestures and expressions of the faces of the figures, transmitting the message of the chaotic anxiety before the final judgment.

     

    Creation of Adam

     

    In this period Saints, Virgins and Apostles are endowed in the artistic works executed with dignity and nobility that is expressed well in its humanized figures, which are represented by the classic canons of beauty but far from being totally idealized they are very natural looking and as realistic as they could possible get.

    Classical philosophers talk within the composition by Raphael “The school of philosophy” surrounded by personalities of the Renaissance, where the spatial illusion represented shows a stunning three-dimensional depth. The softness of the faces of their Virgin and portrait of personalities seem to be made without effort, when in reality an incredible command of technique and great capacity of work give us a visual delight were soft and sweet faces figures evoke a real and emotional feeling, but where light nevertheless is the true protagonist.

     

    Sunrise madonna

     

    Leonardo Da Vinci with his constant experimentation, study the behavior of pigments and adhesives in paint, He finish few works entirely but in the ones preserved it showed the supernal neatness of the drawing and the mastery of the use of color, skills he gathered through the compendium of knowledge he gets to possessed on many scientific aspects. He reaches mastery using the aerial perspective and the so-called Esfumato, skills that placed him as one of the great geniuses of the Renaissance painting.

     

    Mona Lisa

     

    Another prominent artist of this period was Tiziano Vecellio (Titian) whose work manages to represent the pathos of color through control over the lights and shadows. With it’s madden and dynamic style emotionally moves the viewer’s when reinforce de dramatic effects. His elaborate style, which influenced other painters of his time, laid the foundations of what would become the Mannerist style in the 16th century.

    Bramante and Giorgione created very specific and realistic atmospheres where nature in meticulous detail represented seems to beat with warm life, they carry out works with mastery in the use of color; so exquisite that it can be said this is the true protagonist in their works.

     

    GIORGIONE.storm

     

    Leading artists of the High Renaissance

    – Michel angeló di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni. (Michelangelo Buonarroti). (1475-1564)

    – Leonardo di Ser Piero da Vinci. (Leonardo Da Vinci) (1452-1519)

    – Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. (Rafael). (1483-1520)

    – Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio. (Titian) (1485-1576)

    – Giorgio da Castelfranco. (Giorgione). (1470-1510).

    – Donato di Pascuccio D’Antonio. (Donato Bramante da Urbino) (1444-1514)

     

    Mannerism in the Renaissance

    This trend had an advance theoretical developed literature that however found no echo in the bourgeoisie who could not understand its complex conceptual sophistication right away. Mannerism coincides with the period of the crisis of Christianity and the fighting in Europe against the Muslim invaders.

    This tumultuous stage marks the style of many painters across Europe influencing painters in countries as Germany, France, and especially in Spain where the figure of the painter known as El Greco was highly appreciated in the Spanish courts.

     

    vIRGEN AND CHILD

     

    Human figures are more elongated away from the classical balance, used intense chromatic’s, rapture of forms, charged and busy compositions. High expressions of emotions are displayed that increased the feeling of restlessness and anxiety. These paintings are intended to provoke emotional reactions in the Viewer. Clearly, they are the anticlassical response that has been progressively developing that took a boom at the end of the 16th century.

    The contrasting palette of “El Greco”, for example, emphasizes the message through a particularly dramatic eloquence, is almost as if we were seeing real characters in a theatrical scene setting, in his work “The burial of the Count of Orgaz” the pathos about death is represented so vividly that we feel overwhelmed with sorrow before is contemplation.

     

    Count of Orgaz

     

     

    Artists belonging to the mannerist period

    – Andrea di Sarto (1486-1530) (High Renaissance and Mannerist)

    – Giovanni Battista di Jacopo (Rosso Fiorentino) (1494-1540)

    – Sebastiano di Piombo. (High Renaissance and Mannerist)(1485-1547)

    – Fra. . Bartolommeo (di Pagholo) Fra. Bartolomeo. (1472-1517)

    – Domenico di Pace Beccafumi. (1486-1551)

    – Jacomo Carucci. (Pontormo)(1494-1557)

    – Doménikos Theotokópoulos (El Greco). (1541-1614)

    – Giulio Romano (1499-1546)

    – Girolamo Fransesco María Mazzola. (Parmigianino) (1503-1540)

    – Francesco Primaticcio. (1504-1507)

    – Agnolo di Cosimo (Bronzino) (1503-1572)

    – Giorgio Vasari. (1511-1574)

    – Jean Boulogne. (Gianbologna) wrongly know as (Giovanni da Bologna). (1529-1608)

    – Bartolommeo Bandinelli. (1493-1560)

    – Bartolomeo Ammanati. (1511-1592)

    – Bernardo Buontalenti (Bernardo Delle Girandole)(1531-1608)

    – Benvenuto Cellini. (1500-1571)

    – Federico Zuccari. (1540-1609)

    – Pellegrino Tebaldi (1527-1596)

     

    Painters and Mannerist sculptors with its tendency to over ornate and situate many elements in their compositions are the anticlassical response to equilibrate compositional dogmas, experimentation with different color palettes, blurred backgrounds; nervous drawing and exacerbated drama occurred, enunciating the new aesthetic and stylistic bases.

    This mannerist period is the direct antecedent of the Baroque style in art.

    This bases are not taken lightly by the next generation of painters who influenced by the new economical, political and social situation, drive towards a deeper change away from the classical plastic form of the academic and entering a new period in Art History.

     

     

    Parmigianino’s Madonna with the Long Neck  (1534-40) (Wikepedia commons).

    Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective.


  • The Renaissance

    The Renaissance

     

    Renaissance

     

    Is called Renaissance the great artistic and philosophical movement produced in Europe at the end of the 15th century which started in the city of Florence in Italy. This movement manifests itself particularly in the arts, admiring and taking as a model the classical antiquity and its anthropocentrism: (is given preferential interest to the human body, in particular to the naked, whose anatomy is studied and carefully copy).

    The name of Renaissance alludes to what this movement wanted to be: a revival of Greco-Roman culture.

    Humanism revitalization during Renaissance period

    It began as a movement driven by artists and intellectuals, under the sign of humanism; in which for them the figure of man was paramount. It is an Arts revival in which from the point of view of ethical and aesthetic issues, the proposals represented are no longer absolutely according to the Christian concept of life.

    The intellectuals of the Renaissance among other things, were inclined for the fusion of Christian belief with the knowledge of the ancient classical period of Greece and Rome, acting according to it, not oppose to Christianity, but towards been better Christians armed with the understanding of the work of ancient scholars. The philosopher Giovanni Pico de la Mirandola (1463-1494) in his “Prayer to the dignity of man” summarizes the humanism of the Renaissance and León Battista Alberti epitomizes in his multifaceted artistic and literary works the merits of the new man of the Renaissance with a big craving for learning.

    Influenced by modern scientific advances like the study of medicine and philosophers works such as Cicero, the renaissance mans developed a particular optic, appreciating beauty through the nostalgia of the classical past. A taste for representing the anatomical realism of human body is developed, accompanied by its accurate graphic representation. The divine spirit of man, their emotions and their ability to communicate with his creator, are the source of main inspiration in the Renaissance, at the same time pondering the ability of man of been able to create innumerable practical and beautiful things and get the knowledge needed to be a better man and better Christian.

    The Italian Cities States; first Florence, then also Venice and Milan, which had seen Greco-Roman culture been displaced from their regions during the middle ages, gradually evolve during the late Gothic period towards a rescue of the ancient traditional concept of beauty. For artists and philosophers of this period, it was necessary returning to the perfection of forms and circumvents what for them were nothing more than the Barbaric Gothic and Byzantine styles. Although naturally they don’t get freed immediately themselves from the Gothic influence that still had a lot of weight, both in the country as in the rest of the continent.

     

    Florence Cathedral

     

    After the Dark Age and having survived the black plague, begins a period in which there is more appreciation for the individuality and the obtaining of knowledge through personal achievements, which for them were worth as much as gold. The Renaissance period marks the beginning of the modern era in the history of mankind.

    A new cult of Fame from that moment arises and sculptural monuments and paintings are meant to enhance the figures importance and their achievements. No longer being rich marks the only way to belong to a high class, for that point onward is valued the individual as a creator and very appreciate what he is capable to brings to society in terms of knowledge and personal success.

     

    Heroic figures represented by Renaissance artist
    Heroic figures represented by Renaissance artist

    Artist during Renaissance period begin to be recognized as such.

    Artists are respected and considered as important elements within the community and are released from the guilds of craftsmen. For them art was no longer an anonymous service to God and the Church. In the Renaissance the reason and knowledge were the artists personal hymn, praising the beauty, the proportion and harmony, both the nature and the image of the human being, for them essence of the sacred universal whole.

    Already recognized as artist and not as mere anonymous craftsmen, they accept custom work petitions from private sector as well as from the clergy. They start signing their works openly during the Renaissance, which helps the history of art to recognize and classify their works from this point onwards more easily.

    Main causes of the Renaissance emerge.

    -It was possible to study the techniques and knowledge from ancient’s monuments and sculptures, thank to valuable manuscripts found in universities and medieval convents of Greek and Roman authors.

    -The study and use of Latin as a cultured language, which made possible reading of the classics, as well as professional skill, contribute from the arrival of Greek exiles from the Turks invasion that were fleeing to Italy.

    -The presence in Italian land of Roman ruins which gave rise to the desire to know the civilization that had set up magnificent monuments. (Such was the case of the artist Filipo Brunelleschi) who study the foundations and columns of those monuments.

    -The invention of printing by the German Gutenberg, which contributed to the diffusion of the writings of poets, philosophers and historians in ancient times. The books mechanically printed made possible more people could have access to them.

    – Geographical discoveries, the advancement of science, progress of scientific theories, (among of them Galileo’s centrist helium theory that revolutionized the scholar’s thinking).

    – Development of several new techniques in diverse fields that paved the road towards innovative achievements in the XVI c.

    GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RENAISSANCE ART

    – Imitation of architecture and sculpture of Greece and Rome.

    – Realization of works with what for them was the ideal beauty, adjusted to canons dictated by reason.

    – Search for the serenity and balance that comes from the harmony of the whole.

    – They manage to capture the ideal way to correctly represent the aerial or linear perspective in painting, as well as the sensation of corporeality or three-dimensional figures.

    – Applies the concept of spatial illusion in painting.

    – Creation of equilibrate and harmonious works, whose clarity and perfection gives them a permanent validity.

    – Expansion of themes in works such as mythology, religion, history, legends, portraits, landscapes, heroes etc.

    – Conceptualization of the works that are endowed of a clever message with veiled codes.

    – Application of the study of the divine proportion based on the human figure.

    – Realistic representation of nature and the man.

    – Use of expressive gesture reaching the highest intensity with the mannerisms.

    – Figures are placed in complex formal arrangement.

    – Use of chiaroscuro.

    – Works of art in the Renaissance period tends to be monumental.

    New painting techniques in the Renaissance

    – The invention of linear perspective found by Filipo Brunelleschi in architecture and adapted by Masaccio in painting, marks a significant milestone in the possibility which the artist can represent and express the message, using scientific principles of optics that help the spatial display of scenes.

    – With the increased use of the canvas as a base for paint opens new possibilities for the creation of new pigments on basis of oil; endowing the paintings of beautiful colors and sublime contrasts of light and shadow.

    -The multitalented artist Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) dominates the aerial perspective representing the atmosphere that wrap objects, blurring the convergent lines, eliminating the boundaries of shape and color, which gives a very real impression of distance. He constantly experimented with lacquers and adhesives but not all of them gave good results and for this reason his few works (many not totally finished) are not kept in good condition. Leonardo da Vinci achieved outstanding results with what is known as esfumato in which the tones of colors degrade to merge with each other imperceptibly, creating volume and depth. In his famous scheme of the Vitruvian man, shows a detailed study of the divine proportion based on the human figure, principle followed later by many other painters.

     

    Virgen and Child D.V

     

    The use of chiaroscuro in painting allows contrast of lights and shadows, giving dimension to a painting and the illusion of depth or three-dimensionality.

    – The rediscovery of the mathematical proportions of the human body in the 15th century by Leonardo and other authors is considered one of the great achievements of the Renaissance.

    – Foreshortening is a technique used by artists such as Andrea Mantegna in which to create the illusion of depth the objects receding strongly into the distance or background. The artist records, in varying degrees, the distortion that is seen by the eye when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle. It makes parts of an object or subject closest to you appear much larger relative to other parts or figures. The closer to the viewer the bigger is the figure.

     

    Foreshortening

    Death of the Virgin Author:Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506)
    It makes parts of an object or subject closest to you appear much larger relative to other parts or figures. The closer to the viewer the bigger is the figure. painted in (1462–1464)
    Foreshortening technique Technique: Tempera and gold on panel

    In the next article will be summarize the Renaissance in art seen according to its division for periods of time.

    The Trecento, the Quatrocento and the Cinquecento.


  • Key stages of the Renaissance

     

    presentation

     

    Key stages of the Renaissance

     

    1. PRE-RENACIMIENTO or TRECENTO: (13th and 14th centuries).

             This period coincides with the European Gothic period.

               This period is considered as (Early Renaissance).

    1. QUATTROCENTO: (until the end of the 15th century).

               Its cultural centre is the city. Considered as the (High Renaissance)

    1. CINQUECENTO: (fills all the 16th century).

          Its head is Rome. (Considered as the Late Renaissance) in which develop as well the Mannerism at the second half during this period.
     

                           Pre – Renaissance or Trecento: 13- 14 centuries of our era.

    XIII y XIV (A.C)

    This early period in which emerge the Renaissance is known as Pre-Renaissance or Trecento and although in Europe; still remains in preference the Gothic and Byzantine art, in Italy these strictly framed artistic conceptions based exclusively in religious ceremony and thematic don’t resonate with them, therefore the illustrated Italian men’s were not willing to give up its efforts to restore the old classic concept of beauty. The one that belonged to their ancestors and they feel so proud about it and also revere so intensely, even more, since they could learn about the ancient classic period in manuscript uncovered in secrets rooms at old churches. Those were translated to Latin during the 13 and 14 centuries helping to better understand the art of the pass, as well from the discover of ancient Roman’s and Greek ruins containing awesome sculptures.

    In relation to arts can be seen in Italy the application of certain basic understanding and trends that some artists during the Gothic period had already appointed. Those concepts work well with the new changes they wanted to implement in this new period. So they took from formidable painters like Giotto Di Bondone and latter also from Rogier Van Der Weyden; the high expressions of drama. From some other painters they took as well advance artistic theory exponents; as Jean Van Eyck conceptualization of painting through clues and hidden messages.

     

    Adoration of the Magi

    The still strong artisan formation of painters, architects and sculptures during the Trecento, limit somehow their work to flash towards a rapid change. It took a while so they openly and definitely could break with the preconceived Gothic aesthetic bases, but also influenced the fact that still the church was their main client in that period and they set restricted rules that decrecreased the free artistic expressions.

    The application of new technical advances was merging slowly, with the tendency to highly; little by little classic concepts of perfection and proportionality among Italian artist, resulting from this interesting mix very fine works of art which were a little more intellectualized, where the artist gradually starts to communicate more clearly its personal message and declare by the second half of this period onward their choice of style with new freedom, regardless of been representing religious subjects, portraits, landscapes, building a sculpture or a cathedral.

    This new optic open the way for the humanism to set in the artist preference. In this period are laid the foundations that will unify the most important elements that conform properly the Renaissance style, these elements emerging here are perfected during the High Renaissance latter with important figures which are properly recognized as artists, and not like merely artisan.

     

    Quatrocento

       XV (A.C)

     

    annuciation

     

    –          In this period in the 15 century is where formally begins the Renaissance in Italy and are seen more clearly the preferences to follow classic patterns in art.

    –          Their works have a great sense of balance and harmony.

    –          There is a radical transformation of art and artist and an explosion of different new themes.

    –          In architecture occur a radical break with the formal middle ages language characteristic and are settle the fundamental principles of the new Renaissance formulation, where the elements of the classical past as for example; the arches and the columns orders are integrating within the new formulas of construction, such as the use of plates of marble’s and the so-called coffers.

     

    new architec- elem

     

    –          In this period churches of centralized plant are built in greater amount although the Basilica structure is still been builder as well.

    –          The Church still commissioned the majority of works of art by which the Quatrocento architecture is still contemplating among its important buildings temples of the most varied condition.

    –          Opening to the representation of varied decorative elements with new themes in the exterior of the building, like polychrome walls and opening of Aedicule.

    –          It is frequent the construction of hemispheric or ogival domes.

    –          The palaces are growing in importance and are fully integrated with the city.

    –          The sculpture seeks the representation of the canons of beauty of classical antiquity and the representation of an objective realism. The human body is represented with greater realism.

    –          It’s Reborn the sense of proportionality in the sculpture whose canon is set as nine and ten heads.

    –          The nude gets a new thematic force related on many occasions with the mythological theme in sculpture, although it’s also represented in painting.

     

    births of Venus

     

    –          Thematic breadth in which nature is more realistic and detailed and there is a tendency to make imitation of sculptural models of antiquity.

    –          In this first period of Renaissance painting there is concern about the visual representation of nature inspired by pictorial models of classical antiquity.

    –          After several experiments is found the geometric or linear perspective in this period, in which mainly closed type triangular compositions are illuminated with a translucent light distributed homogeneously in the work.

    –          Chromatic complementarily is seeks in the paintings distributed in a balanced and harmonious colors, using several techniques and different media such as frescoes, oil paintings, temples on fixed supports or portable as tables or canvases.

     

     

     Cinquecento

         XVI (A.C)

    –          This period of high classicism is developed in the first half of the 16th century, is important for Rome and the so-called Princes Popes who have an important role in the development of the art acting as patrons, with Julio II, León X, Clement VII.

    –          Important artists receive commissions to decorate the Papal rooms. These include Michelangelo Buonarroti, Donato Bramante and Raphael.

     

    La Justicia

     

    –          In relation to architecture the classical influence on the use of orders and construction techniques is maintained.

    –          Is shown greater luxury and sumptuousness in the palaces combining the practical function of the art work with the decorative purpose.

    –          Centralized plants in churches are used but with new architectural approaches that were based on the humanist thought.

    –          Among the major works in this period, can be cited the new Vatican Palace, the works of the architect Bramante and architect Palladio village’s.

    –          Painters are also innovators and scientists as well, experimenting with many sources of materials, drawing styles, seeking to obtain new color and the representation of atmospheres in they work. Leonardo Da Vinci was one who highly in this scientific experimental work in art.

     

    The last supper

     

    –          By half of the Cinquecento period toward its zenith are conformed gradually the bases of the Mannerisms’ Movement.

    –          Balance and harmony are maintained in the realization of many sculptures but there was some trepidation and dynamism in forms and expressions which the sculptures of Michelangelo Buonarroti are an example.

    –          In painting although much of them remain balanced and harmonious with the works of Rafael compositions for example, revolutionary contributions are introduced like the esfumato technique and the aerial perspective by Leonardo da Vinci.

    –          The first Mannerist painters incursion occur such as Raphael, Titian and Giorgione whose work’s depicts certain distance from the classical harmony of the whole as the period rich the zenith.

    –          An anti classic answer to classicism dogmas occurred in the second half of the 16th century with the Mannerism movement, which are the preamble of the future Baroque style.

    –          The art begins to lean at the end of the 16th century towards tension against the classical balance, spatial confinement and stress against the extensiveness of the space, contrasted against the homogenous light, intense chromatic against the smooth application of color. Their works get huge in volume, looking like giants against the former gracility and perfect dimensionality in the past.

     

    Bacchanal. Titian

     

    –          High expressiveness of emotions is shows against the schematic idealism. But above all is appreciated the increase feeling of restlessness and anxiety contrary to the usual classical calm atmosphere and order. Al this agitated expression and distances to the classical proportions pave the way to the incoming period in art.

    After analyzing the emergence, evolution and consolidation of this innovative movement in Art can be appreciated how important and ground-breaking was in the development not only of the man’s artistic creations, but also how revolutionary and transcendent was in the development of human history in general. The studies about the Key stages of the Renaissance help us to understand the radical changes their trigger, which set in motion the progress of a new modern era with open mind. An era in with men does dare to situate the human figure as center of the universal whole instead of revolve exclusively around a god.

     

    In the next post will be address in more detail the three fundamental periods of the Renaissance in Art:
    1. Early Renaissance.
    2. High Renaissance.
    3. Late Renaissance.