• Category Archives Etrucan Art
  • Etruscan Art. Ceram-Metalwork- Sculp

                             Ceramics, Metalwork, Sculpture.





    Etruscan pottery terracotta overcoat technique was widely used in sculpture, in the production of masks and decoration of sarcophagi. The most splendid pottery recovered in the necropolis of Etruria were essentially imported from the cities of Greece and the Greece Magna, forming part of the network of exchanges and business between Etruscans and Greeks, but we find that along with these imported works were other local production that mimicked the first, about all those that were carried out in the attic and Corinthian style, which had a price more affordable and economical that the imported. The fact about these works less price did not indicate anything were of lesser quality since it is difficult to distinguish between the imported from the local.



    Some ceramic Greek teachers (as Demerito di Corinto) then opened workshops specialized in the major cities of Etruria, disseminating their work systems: they taught how to debug and waterproof clay, also introduced the use of winch, introduced new forms of decoration painted with colors made on mineral bases as well of the popular Greek style ceramic realization. The geometric style is stylized, and goes from being of naturalistic character to offering inspirations based on episodes from mythology.



    The most prominent Etruscan ceramic is performed in the technique of Bucchero (derived from the Spanish word Bucaro) which is a ceramic made using a much more refined clay and whose termination is much more polished since they use a rich thin grain of iron. Its texture was fragile and porous, black or dark grey becoming bright and beautiful when they were polished. This type of pottery was produced from the middle of the 7th century BC.



    Baking this ceramic in a smoked atmosphere devoid of oxygen to reduced the porosity of the surface of the object to be impregnated of carbon particles. This type of technique was formerly known by other cultures before them, but the Etruscans raise it to a degree of perfection by using refined clay resulting in even more uniform black. This ceramic Bucchero in an initial archaic period of its realization was a bit loaded and tended to be profusely decorated and at the V century B.C the production of these type of ceramic stopped.

    Approximately in the year 550 BC black-figure Corinthians pottery was the one that kept dominating the market preference of Etruria. It Is known that master potters from Ionia not only dominated the Etruscan market, but even went on to productions in the same Etruria. The ceramic Caeretan hydrae were extremely important and were made in Cerveteri. Master Athenian potters even export to Etruria a special production line when black-figure pottery and also the red figures began to gain in popularity and demand therefore to dominate the market.



    Meanwhile the Etruscan ceramists produced pottery black figures but with great Greek influence in its forms and designs. They later also  produced red-figure pottery around the V century BC, but rather doing them following the so-called attic style that was performed in the city of Vulci and Civita Castellany. Glazed Black ceramic came to also have popularity as well as that it produced with silver colors that imitated the metal; very sophisticated these one that were a success in business and were of great demand during the Hellenistic period, producing them in the central region of Etruria.






    The Etruscans did not used marble despite its Greek influence in their sculptural productions, however; the terracotta and local stones were widely used above all for the production of bas-reliefs, funeral and religious sculptures to decorate the temples. Sculptures were also produced for the decoration of the houses of the wealthy people who could afford them.


    Etruscan funerary sculpture

    Bronze sculptures

    However when they were made in bronze; these sculptures were only for the decoration of religious and funerary theme. The topics of everyday life, or profane nature according to the evidence preserved until now; do not show that they have been prepared using the bronze.



    – The highlight of the Etruscan sculpture in bronze was the “Capitoline wolf” made around the 5th century B.C presumably in the first half of this century and whose known image is shown in the article devoted to the history and Etruscan culture on this site.

    – The chimera of Arezzo (380 – 360) BC the Greek classical models of Praxiteles and Scopas-related.

    – The Marte of Tody. This sculpture shows already elements of Greek classical models of schools of Phidias and Policleto.



    Sculptures in terracotta (Coroplastia)

    The terracotta was used for elements of architectural production such as

    •   Plates
    • Antefixa (an ornamental edging on the eaves of an ancient building with a tiled roof that hides the joints of the roof tiles)
    • Acroterion (an architectural ornament placed on a flat base called the acroter or plinth). Stand out the productions in the city of Caere. The most important example is the sarcophagus of the spouses made in the period around 530-520 BC.



    Sculptures of religious and mythological subjects were produced in the city of Veii. As an important example of those productions is The Apollo sculpture around the VI century B.C and is a representation of God’s natural size. Other Etruscan sculptures discovered at the same place of worship in Veii are made with the technique of modeling and archaic representation elements from the influence of Greece and were intended to decorate the top of the temple. Stands out the name of Vulca (Etruscan sculptor from this region of Veii) to who is attributed the statue of Jupiter and Hercules.



    The reliefs found mainly associated with funerary art; (Since have not been reached enough samples of decorative reliefs made with different purpose to evaluate them), are composed of funeral steles, cippi and sarcophagi as well as crematories urns and reliefs on the walls. They tell about the life of the deceased and thank to this information we have been able to obtain valuable data related to the Etruscan culture.



    Jewelry and metal work of the Etruscan Art.

    Stand out in the preparation of refined and original gold and silver artifacts such as pins, bracelets, rings, necklaces, jewelry for personal adornment, house goods decoration, daggers, shields, swords and pectoral; amongst other many items thanks to the metallurgical development reached by several Etruscan cities.

    In a first period the archaistic influence from the techniques of master Jewelers of Greece with strong Orientalizante influence stands out in the 7th and 6th BC.



    The Etruscan developed wonderful pieces using metal with techniques such as the grain, watermark and embossment. By evidence found in the city of Vetulonia of small unfinished blocks in ivory it is known that there was a local production. Over time the local craftsmen progressively adapted their work to the specific characteristics and taste of the Etruscan Art. A little more freedom in forms were placed but making sure nevertheless that the beauty and perfection of the art pieces remains.

    They worked silver and other metals producing various with strong Oriental influence. Some objects as for example metal vessels; made in order to contain wine were reproduced in bronze, as well as other various objects including hand mirrors depicting a few of them mythological scenes as well as scenes of the everyday life. They had in many cases inscriptions with short messages, by this one it can be deducted that the main Etruscan women clients of these mirrors could read, at least the aristocratic woman’s who could afforded.

    Etruscan objects for decorative use.

    Beautiful objects made of ivory and amber were primarily made for jewelry and other body ornaments like Combs. Some small vessels to contain perfumes and ointments were found. Semiprecious stones cut in required forms to complement the decoration of rings, necklaces and earrings were made with expertise and attention to detail. It still amazes the ability of these master craftsmen who with tools today for us rudimentary, managed objects of so much beauty.



    It is true Yes, that the Etruscans had a strong Greek influence in their works of art that they imitated them because they appreciate the perfection of their work and skills; which is perfectly related with the tastes and characteristics of their own culture, but from there to say as others have said; that they were mere imitators without intentions of creating their own style; It really is an injustice to affirm a testimony like that without  even have all the elements because many have been lost.

    Deny that the Etruscan art would have its own identity by the mere fact they used Greek skills and techniques It is going too far in the waters of ignorance and give too little credit to a culture that it is now that it is beginning to know its history and legacy a little better. The Greek techniques by the way were more than tested to work perfectly fine related to the taste of that period in history and also had great demand thanks to the perfection and beauty with which they were created; so why the Etruscan should not imitated them is they fix perfectly for their purpose? Is not easy to take some other culture techniques and style to make them your own but they overcome the challenge nevertheless with success.



  • Etruscan Painting



    Many Etruscan sites, mainly in cemeteries and shrines, have been excavated, notably in Veyes, Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Vulci and Vetulonia. Other important sites are in Caere, Chiusi and Orvieto. Numerous Etruscan tomb paintings illustrate scenes of the life, death and mythology. They use a palette dominated by warm and bright colors framed by a stroke of dark line delimiting the figure giving the feeling of that are clipped on the bottom. They address mostly issues about daily life.



    Made in the technique of fresco show a great similarity with the patterns and technical conventions leading in the painting of the archaic period on all Greece mostly those made before the 4th century BC such as:

    – Difference in the use of color in male and female figures in which the Red was used for male faces and bodies and white for the female.

    – Frame the silhouette with a dark continuous line that was filled with pigments.

    – Figures flat, clipped on the bottom does not seek the feeling of third dimension.

    – There is no intension of expression of movement.

    – There is no concern to represent volume.

    – Figures although they represent the body’s front show the head turn to the side. (Frontality).



    Of the hundreds of graves found in Tarquinia around some 60 have paintings that give name to the Tomb. The fresco painting found in them is linear, following much Greek art models as previously mentioned. People profile, but with the front body is represented, although there are also some of these paintings depicting figures displaying complete profiles with anatomical treatment.



    In the 6th and V BC main topics covered in the painting as found in these funerary monuments are:

    – Predilection for the realistic scenes that were related to the daily events in their lives. Example: Tomb of hunting and fishing. Tarquinia.

    – Illustration of funeral rites which includes banquets, dance and music. This issue is regularly represented at many of these tombs during the 5th century BC example of these issues are in the tomb of the Augurs. Tarquinia.

    – The theme of the world beyond the grave. The Etruscans professed tribute to their dead in a particular way to represent them in his paintings full of life appreciating the good things of life and in their moments of well-being and wealth.

    – The stories of heroes and mythological gods in the painting was in correspondence with the religious fervor of polytheistic concept (worship multiple gods and minor deities) so this topic provide great examples found in the tombs of ORCO II. Tarquinia.

    – The dead are represented with their appropriate funerary inscriptions that also identified them.



    Major changes in the Etruscan pictorial realization are produced around the IV century BC and among them we can mention:

    • In the 4th century is added the use of other shades and colors as blue in the Etruscan painting.
    • The figures dominate the drawing on smooth bottoms.
    • Natural elements like plants and flowers are profusely used in scenes that represent exteriors.
    • Concern to represent volume, third dimension and movement.



    Other pictorial manifestations mainly related to the decoration of buildings such as temples were painted with Terra-cotta plates that covered the walls and columns of these buildings.

    We will detail more about this in the post relating specifically to the Etruscan architecture.


  • Etruscan Architecture

    Etruscan Architecture


    Studies based on different aspects of science, history and archaeology have provided invaluable information about how the etruscan lived based on the remainings graves; the constructions that were made to perpetuate the memory of their dead. Those graves were made resambling the world of the living with all the accomodations; so they love ones could enjoy also confort in their way beyond the realm of the living.



    The Etruscans imitated the distribution, constructive and architectural model of the cities in which they lived and reproduced them in the tombs where supposedly, according to their religious beliefs; those who died should rest in an environment similar to one they had in life.

    They came to make of the tombs real cities, only which these were made for funerary purposes. It has been found by the archeologies; Etruscan tombs with distribution and interior design imitating the rooms of a house, especially the one that corresponded to aristocrats, important personalities and wealthy people. Inside them has been found stone sitting areas, personal objects, ornaments, jewelry and sculptures among other things that have stood the test of time and which are in many cases true works of art.



    Etrucan Types of burials


    • The Tomb in the form of trench  or pit: dug into the ground and covered by a horizontal headstone or two tombstones  form a single roof. It is the simplest type of burial for lowest class people. Many polls Etruscan containing ashes of human remains have been found.


    • The molder or CANOPEN, on which were drawings with scenes of Banquet, the handles and lid had form figures. Over time these vessels take on human form, being the top head and handles arms.


    • The Cipo is another important  menhir-shaped funerary vessel, will be decorated with mundane scenes, procreation and life in the future.




    • The Settimello is another type of funerary monument that is placed to the inputs of the tombs, a Cipo with four Lions lifting their legs threateningly, and also ornaments resembling Palms between them.



    • The Hypogeum (around the 6th century) Was a camera excavated in the rock. Destined for people of greater power purchasing, noble and aristocrats. The interior mimics the inside of a house, are located side by side forming streets and creating real cities being called graves. They also have decorated the walls and placed the rooms structured imitating the houses inside.


    • Burial Mound. They existed in the 7th and 6th  B.C. were mounds of Earth to the outside that could have up to 40 meters in diameter. They were not perfectly aligned; but they also have the  distribution of cities. An interior hallway leads to different Chambers decorated with reliefs that mimicked the interior of a House. They had  pilasters, Windows, stone benches, chairs, vessels, ornaments, small  sculptures creating a pleasant atmosphere as if the dead were still alive. Those Mounds have a circular shape, is a low wall built of ashlars, is vaulted and on the outside imitates a natural Hill. The burial chamber is  decorated with various murals paintings or reliefs with fight scenes, games, banquets and festive themes where the characters are alive, happy and at the height of their health and well-being.




    Etruscan temples


    The Etruscan temples were located in an Esplanade in the outer part of the city. Although in the beginning they were open; delimited only symbolically, then the temples are covered and take the same square structure that was used in civil buildings for housing, like a big house that collectively surrendered tribute to their deities. The type of structure of Cellar that sometimes has three of them to accommodate more people was the characteristic building typology.



    The stone used for the basement was the strong and long-lasting material; in fact this is the only thing that has been left as evidence of these Etruscan religious buildings. The rest of the structure was used with very perishable materials subject to the destruction of the time such as wood and clay. They coat the surface of the walls and columns with ceramic plates that were decorated with different shades of vivid colors dominated by the reds, oranges, and yellows.

    A grand staircase in the front of the building led Access to these Etruscan temples consisting of a big open room with columns as a vestibule or lobby; without walls but with roofing. It has been found these columns in some temples also in the sides but never in the back of the building. In this aspect they differed from the Greek pantheon that fallow with rigor the perfection of the mathematical measures in the design of the plants in its buildings.

    The structure of the etruscan temple was semi-circular exhibiting a splendid double slope to the outside. They were covered by a single roof which unified all the interior Cellars which the meddle one wider dominating the space.

    These temples have in the pediment, since the 6th century, sculptures in terracotta, which of course have been lost. These sculptures were apparently large and could be seen from a considerable distance. This is another aspect that differs from the Greeks temples that the sculptures in the pediment were in perfect proportion to the building measures therefore were smaller and scarcer. The Etruscan temple did not possess Krepis or crepida, a protruding structure as if has the Greek temples. The Etruscans never used a back porch.



    The Etruscan columns

    They used columns preferably as a support system but these were simple did not have fixed parts; they resemble a little Doric style columns, and its form and structure changes over time giving way to the column that is known as Tuscany. It is noted that the capitals of these columns is working with freedom in their forms which gave rise to various designs according to the inspiration of its builders. Compared to the Doric capitals order the Tuscan capital was a little more decorated.

    – The shaft of the Etruscan columns was smooth as is the case of the temples and used the polychrome.

    – Strong basement.

    – These columns have the equine, abacus, the plintio, and the hipotraquelio.


    Etruscan Civil constructions

    Virtually all rest with only few exceptions of civil structures belonging to the Etruscan culture has been lost but studying the funerary constructions has been known that they used the baked brick and the rammed earth. Of course they also used wood for doors, frames and covers. The Etruscans did not used marble; they used more like a stone that did not have much quality to strengthen the structures of the bases and also the angles of these constructions.


    Etruscan cities

    The Etruscan cities were square and divided into grid. It is known that these cities were surrounded by thick walls and accessed the city through a large main entrance doors and arriving for them at the two main streets that were crossed. The doors were guarded by figures of protective genies and were of simple construction virtually no decoration but strong and reinforced by placing them under an arch at half point between two towers.



    In the most ancient period of this culture houses of the inhabitants of the cities of humble extraction were very simple, with a circular form and were manufactured with rammed earth and were covered with light wood and branches. The houses of wealthy people were built with more quality materials but were equally circular. Approximately in the 7th century began to be built those houses following squares plants.

    There was always a clear difference between the constructions that were made for humble people of those for the wealthy class; but even more marked in this period of the 7th century when best materials and new constructive techniques only affordable for the wealthy ones were made. Houses began to be built larger and taking advantage of the possibilities that the quadrangular plant allows; design the rooms around a central courtyard.

    The Etruscan Patio

    Was made:

    – With impluvium in the Centre and cover with four slopes towards the inside.

    – With the despluvio with the cover with four slopes towards the outside.

    These houses had a single door of entry or access; there were no doors to the outside, the rear   or by the sides of the housing. Shingles that covered the roofs were flat and the columns were made with poor materials such as wood.

    With the help of awesome constructive models inherited from Greece; which were adapted to their needs and taste, from the 6th century BC the Etruscans, had already created the first quality buildings and the early works of engineering in the Italian peninsula. With the fusion of their inherited architectural models and their own characteristic the Etruscan left an important legacy to the Romans; based on which they created the cities.


    The most important contributions of the Etruscan architecture :

    – The use of the arch and the dome which comes from Eastern influences.

    – As in the Greek art; also in the Etruscan architecture predominate adinteladas structures. The buildings do not have almost sculptural decoration except some sculptures of terra cotta in the pediments of temples.

    – They created a new order, the Toscana, derived from the Greek Doric order; simple base, smooth shaft and similar to the Doric capital.

    – The structure of the Etruscan temples which lacked columns at the rear as in the Greek plants was taken by the Romans later as a construction model for their religious buildings.

    – The doors of the fortifications with semi-circular arches between two towers.

    – Construction of tombs placing in the likeness of the houses in the cities with a quadrangular structure and forming blocks with their corresponding signal. This was the structure that Rome inherited and extended for the rest of the world up to our days.

  • Etruscan culture

    The Etruscan culture and history.


    A region that is located in the central region of Italy towards the West Coast received the name of Etruria. The Etruscan people created a culture with unusual characteristic for the time and definitely eye-catching and particular sore to speak in some way to the taste of their contemporaries in the region.



    Centered around of what was known as City-States which emerged and later flourished between the period comprising the 7th centuries and the V centuries B.C. on which its power in the region began to decline at the time they have to engaged with fighting with Celts, Greeks and Carthaginians and adding the fact that they did not have a State as such unified.

    Toward the II century B.C their problems due to external invasions and the pressure of Rome put on impoverished situation this conglomeration of Etruscan cities becoming practically in a natural way that they were absorbed by Rome and fade away as independent cities in the 1st century B.C.

    The Etruscans called themselves as “racennas“. The Greeks called them “Tyrrhenian” and the Romans “tusks” or “Etruscan” as is known this culture today.

    The system of Confederation with which were United under common religious principles rather than under political or in some ways economic interests was not a solid base to hold against the external invasions, these cities were too individualistic to work together for one greater purpose.



    It is known today by studies that the Etruscans in their flowering stage were an important culture in Italy and that influence was so strong and resonant to extend by the peninsula as a whole. Thought on the basis of the evidence found that this culture was developed from a prehistoric civilization known as Villanova, which was developed between 900 and 500 B.C.

    Different theories from Greek stories and Chronicles reflect about the origin of Etruscans, all of this is motivated by the lack of documentation regarding the enlightening.

    Due to the Greek influences and inhabitants of other regions in their art and culture in general, is not ruled out today that they have actually been native inhabitants with an intense cultural exchange with adjacent regions and why not; that themselves migrated from one side to another during the period of establishment and strengthening of these cities state until its configuration when they finally settled. The fact is that no one knows its origin for sure yet and that many studies have been done at present to find out, even one DNA-based in the year 2007 of the settlers of the zone in which the Etruscans developed but surely and with certainty yet nothing is known.

    It is estimated that around twelve cities constituted this Confederation. These urban centers included not only major cities but also smaller centers linked and dependent of them.


    These cities include: 

    – Populonia

    – Vetulonia

    – Ruselas


    – Cortona

    – Tarquinia

    – Cerveteri

    – Vulci

    – Veyes.

    – Volterra

    – Orvieto

    – Chiusi

    Of these cities great coastal town of Populonia reaches a significant importance for the production and processing of minerals on a large scale. While they had deposits they preferred to bring these minerals by sea, especially the

    iron from the island of Elba. They did with this iron weapons to his troops. This iron was also distributed by the rest of the cities of Etruria.

    For this transfer by sea had to deal with pirates, assaults of other nations competing for the obtaining of the ore, but their ships and fleet were so powerful that they could deal with this threat and continue with the maritime transportation of ore, of which came to accumulate so much waste in the production process that huge hills of these mineral deposits were used during the second world war for weapons production.

    The city of Cerveteri, whose economy was based on agriculture, reached a rapid economic and cultural development from the mineral processing and commercialization of refined products that were manufactured locally. Bronze products came to have high manufacturing quality, some samples were found in the tombs of this city.

    The Etruscans were a people fundamentally merchant and retained this characteristic way of life throughout its existence as a culture, not only traded by sea but also by land.

    Lack of testimonies written or counted by the Etruscan culture itself has left its history at the mercy of tales of the Greeks and Romans. In these stories or Chronicles they say that the Etruscans have promiscuous promo behavior among other things. Those who told these chronicles were influenced by the particular conception of life of their culture and sometimes some venoms comments based on animosities against the Etruscan is to be take with tweezers and carefully.

    It is known that many cultures strongly criticized all that is different to them, the actions of those who are not acting like them following the dogmas that they believe as been the correct ones. That it was what happen with the Etruscan culture, and just because they were different from the others were judged harshly.


     Women in the Etruscan culture


    As these ancient chroniclers were accustomed to see how subordinated the Greek and Latin women in their culture were to the male supremacy; they did not understand that women in Etruria could participate alongside their male partners in everything that occurred in the social, economic and family life.

    Etruscan women even prepared for the case of the event of the loss of her husband to deal with businesses and keep afloat the family patrimony. They were actively involved in banquets, feasts and religious and political events. They liked to dress with eye-cashing clothes and did so with good taste and pride without being for that reason labeled of licentious conduct by their own people, so liked it or not one that another Greek had to recognize in his Chronicles that they looked beautiful.

    Women were participating in sporting events in the Etruscan Culture, liked to do exercises, were always clean and dressed with ornaments; especially those of the wealthy class that could afford these jewels. Women had an important position among the Etruscan aristocrats and they were responsible for transmitting the family inheritance to.

    In the works of art that today we have the pleasure of contemplating that have been preserved in tombs that occupied the Etruscan region, we see how women were represented regularly in all the artistic manifestations with his male partner, dancing, sleeping alongside her husband enjoying banquets or represented in reliefs, sculptures and paintings showing them in possession of jewelry and body ornaments.



    What for contemporaries of the Etruscans was considered promiscuous, licentious attitude or low reputation of the woman was not another thing that the natural way the Etruscan people carried life fullness, but others could not understand that and instead criticized them, they distort and exaggerated the fact that Etruscan women will enjoy the freedoms that they were entitle. For Greek, Romans, Aegean and other people a respectable woman in their view should be confined in her house. All this misunderstanding really twist the real image and role that the Etruscan women have among their people.  In the inscriptions on the Etruscan tombs have been found references appointing both the mother and the father names of the deceased and that clear establish the equal roll that both men and woman have alike in their society.



    Has been raised by some comparative social studies, that the Etruscan society had similarity to the Minoan culture in many aspects for example in reward to the cult of the body, both lived life intensely, they loved dancing, music, nature and they were likely to perform physical exercises and maintain healthy body, both cultures like sports events and have polytheist religion.  The importance of the roll of the woman in both cultures; the economic trading based to obtain their wealthy and so others aspects have been the based over which they establish those parallel facts.

    But the Etruscan differed from the Minoans, however, since the Etruscans those have to surround their cities of fortifications with high and wide walls to be protected from their enemies and also mantein armies and military campaigns when they were required as a defense as well as to maintain supremacy in trade in the region defending themselves from pirates and invasions; It should be noted that the Etruscans were not prone to war or have an invasive nature as the Assyrians for example. In fact for a long period of history they made trade and treaties as it was the case with the Phoenicians to keep the peace. Although they have numerous other enemies by land and sea from whom they have to defend themselves from.




    Etruscan art and culture was destroyed as soon as the Roman Empire absorbed them. Thanks to the works of funerary art preserved in their graves is that it has been able to know more detailed aspects of the life of the Etruscans. We do not know for certain why the Roman Empire untie a hatred towards all Etruscan still and when the influence of this culture was present in facets of the life, politic and art of Rome, ultimately was a reach heritage and roots what they get  from their Etruscan ancestors to denied them like Romans did.



    Even the symbol of Roman nationalism of the Capitoline she-Wolf breast-feeding Romulus and Reno, is an Etruscan work; which figures of children were added in a later period. Countless written works were burnt by the Roman Empire, destroyed forever by what has not been possible to fully decode the language of the Etruscans.

    Etruscan Phonics is different from the Greek or Latin or any other native root of European origin. Have been calculated that from the 7th century approximately. Etruscan has the same Latin root of writing by what can be read without problems but cannot been understand anything of what is read.


    Religious beliefs


    There were rituals of all sorts, both addressed to the State as to the individuals; these were extremely serious and meticulous. There is certain equivalence with religions of Eastern regions in particular with the religion of Sumer and Chaldea and even also the Egyptian.


    Etrurian Relief of the goodess Juno


    Based on revelation and divination of the future and was keeping in a series of sacred books, which have various topics that were represented in the artistic manifestations among them we have:

    – The interpretation of the way in which the rays hit and are projected during electrical storms.

    – Divination and precognition of facts or events based on the observation of bodies organs of slaughtered animals and the flight of birds.

    – The righteousness of the State, the seriousness and good behavior of individuals.

    – They possessed something similar to the Egyptian book of the dead.

    The most important Etruscan gods were:

    Tinia (Zeus).

    Uni (Hera)

    Menrfa (Athena)

    There was also a belief in the existence of evil demons, to Assyrian mode. The Etruscans believed in life from beyond the grave, in a life after death, honoring their dead, perpetuating their memory narrating passages of their life when there were alive.  Artistic expressions in the places of burial had allowed knowing better about this rituals and religious belief.

    Etruria fell under the domination of Rome toward century II A.C and was absorbed; disappearing as independent culture toward the first century BC becoming almost a ghost after that. The life and customs of the Italian region where the families for centuries were raised according to the Etruscan precepts testified in favor of all the inheritances that one way or another they left behind.

    Greed toward the riches of the Etruscan cities created them several enemies throughout its history. The Etruscans as culture have failed in the fact of not having consolidated their region under a single unified state that would protect them and ensure their survival. In the following article we will address more detailed aspects of their art that is whom better enlighten about the Etruscan Culture legacy.