Very little is known of the Greek painters in ancient times, however, it is well know the mastery they could reach and manifested, as is also know the incredible realistic effects they produce by descriptions of some Roman writers annotations about the greek painters and the very few paintings that has survived. The Roman’s copies of Greek paintings also aport valuable informations, since they greatly appreciate their techniques and styles, coping and reproducing them even; many times the same work in different periods.
The paintings of ceramic vases and mural paintings discovered in Etruscan tombs; who imitated the work style and technique of Greek painters very well give us as well an idea on how they must have been realized
We can only see, some original Greek paintings features in the painting of their ceramic vases, that still remain in Museums and private collections, which decorations follow the bases characteristics of equilibrium and harmony, away from abrupted lines, carefully representing the sinuosity of the form in sophisticated fashion, like in the way the group the characters, the lines to accentuate the figures against the background, and others details. But unfortunately the richness in the palette used, the tones, the matiz and other aspects, can not be appreciated in their ceramic work due to the limitations of this technique.
It is know the names of many famous painters in ancient times and references of many of their works, but unfortunately, as we state before, they have not survived either.
Names of some ancient Greek painters:
– Polignoto – Apolodoro of Athens. – Agatarco of Samos. – Zeuxis Parrasio – Apelles.
Greek Painting in frescoes
Fresco Painting was a method widely used for decoration of the walls of temples, public buildings, houses and tombs. It should be noted however that this type of mural painting did not have the same level of reputation that panel painting had. Due to the perishable nature of these panels along with centuries of looting and vandalism, not a single Greek Classical panel painting of any quality has survived.
The mural was intended primarily to cover or disguise the imperfection of the walls; whose completion was not very smooth; because of the poor materials used in its lining. The themes treated in this type of painting were however similar to the one used on panel painting. In contrast to other ancient culture that also did fresco’s to decorated the uneven surfaces, the Greeks did not filled all the spaces in them; not leaving absolutely not space free like other cultures usually did. Greek remain loyal to the concept of balances, equilibrium, order and mathematical proportions in the fresco painting as well.
Among the examples of Greek fresco painting are some mural painting in Etruscan tombs discovered like the one shown below corresponding with the Tomb of the diver.
– The Tomb of the Diver at Paestum (c.480), a grave decorations in the Greek colonies in Italy.
– The Great Tomb at Verfina (c.326 BC), whose facade was decorated with a large wall painting of a royal lion hunt. This mural is noted for its subtle depictions of light and shadow as well as the use of a technique called Optical Fusion (the juxtaposition of lines of different colors).
Painting on the Greek sculptures.
Sculptures also were painted, the stone, terracotta and wood sculpture was another specialist technique mastered by Greek artists. Stone sculptures were typically painted in bold colors; mostly the part corresponding with the representation of the hair and the clothes, however the part corresponding to the skin lacks of painting, were stayed with the natural tone of the stone.
Sculptures were painted but not all its parts, rather only some; to highlight some elements, and that was done with taste and detail, with subtlety, enhancing the beauty and expressiveness of these sculptures in an impressive form. Sometimes all the sculpture was painted in a single color, and they were usually the one related to religious cult.
Based on micropigments remains on greek relief and sculptures; have been possible to obtain thanks to modern techniques a representation on how they must have been look like in ancient times.
Greek Painting Classical Period (400-323) BC.
Almost all pictorial forms flourished during the classical period of Greek art, panel painting is highly used in the in-caustic or tempera technique. The topics addressed mainly figurative scenes, portraits, and still life. Representations of mythology passages were also portrayed in them. Heroes and heroines are represented with the canons of ideal beauty, balanced proportions and softness of the lines.
Their rationality produces calm, balanced, they are away of nervous lines, crack forms or bold and unbalance elements, as well as sudden movements of the lines that can produce an uneasy feeling or uncertainty.
Their artworks; was mainly addressed to achieve the appreciation of beauty by the viewers and give joy to their spirits, they get to represent however; the sinuosity of the outlines of human figures and fine detail in the representation of nature; despite the idealism they convey as a way of represent forms in their ideal depiction, not because they don’t care about reality and the social challenges of living in a civilized society, they did it because in their philosophy of life; in order to represent an art that can be appreciate to the point of elevating the joy of the spirit, reality need to be sifted, filtrated and sweetened, no presented row and crude as human usually perceive reality.
During the golden period of Macedonian empire under the mandate of Felipe II of Macedon, father of Alexander the great, the Greek painting had its greater apogee with works of great quality.
There are pictorial experimentation and new techniques addressed to improve the use of shading, color and light to highlight the figures. Although the scenes were a sweet idealized fantasy of the imagination of the artist; they show great interest representing the detail of the elements of plants and animals in their paintings. The same apply as well to represent human figures as realistic as possible; as they did in other manifestations like sculpture, studying the real human features very carefully they obtained the best result. Different schools were created and their geographical location determine in some artistic tendencies of their artworks. Cartoon and genre painting are treated in this period also with success.
Greek painting in the Hellenistic period.
During the Hellenistic period begins around the year 323 BC and coinciding with the death of Alexander the great, the Greek art transcends borders and times. In their constant journey to achieve perfection therefore; the Greek painters introduce in this period in order to reach a better communication with the viewers, certain movements in the lines to insinuate dynamic in the figures and to put emphasis in the emotions, although maintaining equilibrium without impetuous splits in the lines and forms. The light gets an important protagonist play highlighting the main characters in the compositions.
Artist achieve through repetitive intents; from the times of the Classical period, better results riching a better depictions of the location and proportion of the figures in their artworks that suggest a three dimensional scene. It reveals a grasp of linear perspective (Linear Perspective uses vanishing points and lines of conversions to give a picture space and depth) as well as a naturalist representation which would remain unsurpassed until the Italian High Renaissance.
From the 5th century BC we cannot appreciate the evolution of Greek painting taking as an example the ceramic decoration, because there will not be a correlation between them. The mosaics and some frescoes from Roman times, copies of the most famous Greek painters Apelles, “official” painter of Alexander the great, Soso of Pergamum , Teón or Filóxeno of Eritrea), show that their evolution continued to a greater naturalism, achieving in Hellenistic times the domain of the volume.
Greek art influence is well received even by the Romans; who appreciate and imitate the Greek art for a long time. Paintings by artists under the rule of the Roman Empire make many imitations produced to decorate palaces, temples and Roman public buildings; even in their colonies outside of Rome. Roman’s thou reinforced the purpose of political propaganda and religious characteristics, over the simple decoration purpose; for the joy and elevation of the spirit that the Greeks conferred to their art.
The Etruscan were very influenced by Greek painting style, mostly their paintings from the early periods, because they change slightly with time some characteristics regarding color, proportions, and relation between background and figures. (refer to the Etruscan painting post for more details.)
Greek culture develop a very refine ceramic artthat was imitate by various cultures in ancient times; among them the Etruscan and other peoples in the region. Their ceramic was highly appreciated and was always in demand because of is quality and variety.
This is of the called Greek “minor Arts” the one that better and more varied in scenery and painting refers. Their ceramic production gives us a glance at their very sophisticated and varied techniques and a more approachable idea about their artistic evolution.
With a style and techniques, characterized by having different shapes and be very original, dominated by geometric elements arranged in stripes, shades of clay, from yellow to Brown grey, presents figures in red on a black background, or the background red with black figures, predominating animal and human forms. Greek pottery had as base material clay and used several types of this one.
Type of Clay in Greek Pottery.
The clay of Athens was rich in oxide of iron and with cooking acquired a beautiful red-orange color.
The Clay from Corinth, devoid of iron oxide, had a whitish color. These differences allow determining the source of the ceramic craft origin.
The clay was extracted from quarries it was purified and then washed for several weeks.
It was soaked in large ponds where fine particles that ascend to the surface were recovered by a process of filtration. This stage allowed removing impurities which could lead to a dangerous outbreak in the cooking process.
Then they dry the clay expose to the Sun that have been previously cut into blocks.
They were then stored for some time to provided its plastic qualities arouse and be that way allow to shape it.
Manufacture of Greek pottery:
The Potter must be massing the pasta to expel the air bubbles and worked on a lathe powered by the Potter itself or an assistant.
When it was manufactured it is put to dry.
The next step was painting, according to a technique which varied depending on the style used. In general, the painter was playing with the contrast of the red color of clay and a layer of black color.
The water of impurities were recovered and decanting it and was used to draw the decorative motifs.
Through the cooking resurface the drawings on the clay color background.
Once the paint had dried, the painter led the Potter to step in for the cooking, that was relatively simple in principle, but requires care and experience nevertheless and had three stages.
Stages of the cooking in Greek Ceramic.
1. Firing in oxidizing atmosphere.
2. Cooking in reductive atmosphere.
3. Cooking in re-oxidizing atmosphere.
Forms and decorative motifs of Greek Ceramic:
Scenes of everyday life.
Proof of its importance and prestige is the fact they were signed by both the ceramist and the painter.
Geometric style of greek Ceramic. (10th centuries to the VIII BC)
Geometric decorative motifs in horizontal bands are the main theme. They were arranged in bands separated from black areas by triple lines. With the time, the balance between decorated bands and shady bands broke in favor of the decoration: the meanders and other thematic motives ended up covering the ceramic vessel.
In the call “Middle Geometric” was introduced the figurative aspect representing animals, such as horses. The Geese and deer are now combined with the bands of geometric style.
The vessels begin to be decorate lavishly without leaving any empty space, showing signs of what is known as “Horror vacuous”; Latin expression which literally means (fear of the vacuum) and is a term much used in criticism of art to point out this phenomenon in the decorative aspect.
In the Center usually appear scenes with the following characteristics:
– The main theme is funeral ceremony.
– Schematic and stylization.
– Painting flat, without perspective and proportion.
THE CORINTHIAN STYLE (UNTIL THE 6TH CENTURY B.C.)
This style shows decoration of animals, real and fantastic, in horizontal stripes on a white background.
THE ORIENTAL STYLE (UNTIL THE 6TH CENTURY B.C.)
This style was influenced by the Eastern motifs, human figures were here the main character; also show the uses of horizontal bands in the decoration of this vessel. One example of this period is the Francois glass: from the sixth century b. C.
Black figure Pottery
From the 6th century B.C the narrative shifts the geometric to a second places, until definitely disappear the bands decorations, becomes this figures then the single motives in the belly of the item.
Example Odysseus and Ajax playing at the funeral dice. Please note here the appearance of the human figure, silhouette in black and ochre funds. It is characterized not only by the drawing of figures in black on the bottom of clay, but also by the use of incisions.
“Red figure” pottery
It appears at the end of the 6th century BC, but its heyday is in the 5th century BC.
The scenes represented in the vessels gain in naturalism and expressiveness. The perspective and sense of spatial reality effects are achieved. In this case is use a reverse technique to the one used for the black figure in which on a black background highlighted figures in red for the color of the clay that was used to obtain the mixing of the paint.
There are also a greater delicacy in the details and greater complexity in the grounds. In addition to the simple investment of the colors, red-figure pottery technique allowed an improvement of drawing, particularly in the representation of the draped, the bodies and other details.
The precision gained with this new technique allow substitute almost complete the use of the polychromic, winning in fact the achievement of a most realistic expression.
The Polychrome ceramics:
It is also develops in the 5th century BC, when more colors are added to the palett.
The same concepts that apply to other artistic manifestations in Greek art such as the proportion and harmony, symmetry and technical perfection can be seen in relation to architecture. Those concepts stand up in the classical temples, whose characteristics are common to all the “Polis”. Greek temples were designed to be observed from the outside and not for the use of its interior space. So its external appearance becomes a main value closely related to the worship of the deities in the Greek culture.
Its construction is based on a constructive module of mathematical measures that perfectly make interacts all the parts of the building together. Balance and symmetry set the ideal order to build and design the different parts of the building.
Different materials used in Greek Architecture
The structures stood up using different materials:
Wood in the beams of reinforcement.
Raw brick in the interior walls.
Rock of calcite on walls of stone known as “Albarradas”.
Terracotta to make tiles. In times of prosperity was used the one from Mount “Pentelico”.
The marble was used for sculptures and also in the structure of the buildings in temples of great importance.
Technical elements used in Greek art
The perfection of these buildings is seen in complex technical elements such as:
– Optical adjustments.
– The use of colas of Milano in replacement of mortar in the coupling of the ashlars.
– The perfect framed and polishing of the masonry.
Principal plants distribution in Greek architecture for the construction of temples:
The Greek temple was establishes in a sacred space called Temenos. The plants of the temples are called as their columns are distributed; along its perimeter as well as the number of them.
Classical orders in Greek architecture.
The classical orders in Greek architecture constitute a constructive design to ensure the repetition in all the temples of the same decorative and constructive system module.
The roof of the temple is constructed in a way in which the two parts of it leaves a space triangular which is called “Pediment”.
A late period show an influence of the art of the East in the construction of these temples and other buildings and this influence takes a huge role of dominant expression.
The Monumental sculpture (applied to architecture)
The friezes: find sculptural decoration in relief in the metopes of the Doric frieze and in the jonick friezes; occasionally also in friezes decorating elsewhere in the temples or other buildings. However to be these sculptures a works that is made in two dimensions; is achieved the purpose of give the relief a three-dimensional effect, in which figures express movement in relation to the action which they are performing as well as the emotions, heroism and divinity representation.
It is seen here as in the rest of the sculptural work a great attention to detail, the figurative representation, the proportions of the figures and the balance and proportion of them in relation to the rest of the figures of the whole group, exquisite care of the perspective that gives the feeling of been looking at a real scene.
The eardrums of the pediments: is the preferred place, usually decorated with sculptures called “round piece”.
The decoration of the top front of those temples presents the problem of adapting the scene to the triangular shape of the eardrum, so evolve in the search for solutions that respect the proportionality of the figures, various form are presented; the characters are placed them standing, bending, kneeling, sitting, lying or lay, in a way in which can locate them without breaking the logic of the perspective and the beauty of the whole arrange. Notwithstanding the challenge launched to resolve the location of the figures in the triangular space these present greater dynamism. This will be the line to follow from that point on.
– In the Temple of Artemis in Corfu.
– In the Treasury of the Sifnos at Delphi.
– In the Temple of Afaia in Aegina.
– In the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.
The perfection of this proportioned buildings with total devotion to represent harmony, equilibrium of the parts and total mathematical accurateness in the construction, make use even of optical illusion tricks to fix what the human eyes could distort when the parts of the building are observed from determined points of view. All this efforts to get an exact representation of the ideal beauty paradigm; transcend in architecture along centuries been the classical Greek ideals the model to follow for many architects even to this days.
The ancient Greek Sculpture like the rest of this art is characterized by its aesthetic idealism, the use of proportionality and balance of the elements and for their interest in the artistic works who reflect the lines of the human figure to perfection both in drawing and sculpture. Greeks raise the human body to be the basis of all beauty and peg. This trend is called anthropocentrism.
Although Greek art relies on nature, manifests itself however depicting a sweetened version of this one; tending to the creation of an idealized world where simplicity, the rhythm, the proportion and clarity; as well as the conceptual unit of work dominate all its art forms.
Athleticism was one of the main inspiration to the Greeks; was very cultivated by these and the artists gave their best work basic on those models. Fascinated by the sinuosity of the forms of the human body (which inherits from the Minoan culture); they are already reaching in the classical stage phenomenal mastery of techniques that allow them to express a great realism in the works of sculpture.
Greek sculpture is not subject to rules or conventions. The sculptor has freedom to express their vision in the play; however, they search achieving representation of perfection in the human figure as mentioned above; exalting the physical strength and the perfection of the traits.
Initially in wood; then replaced by stone (marble mainly); is also widely used the bronze (lost wax); exceptionally crisoelefantinas (of ivory, gold and silver).
The sculptures were generally polychrome, except for works made in bronze.
Greek sculpture through 3 periods times or evolutionary phases, with specific characteristics in each of them.
Go from the 8th century to the 6th B.C.
More specific; Archaic period go since the end of the so-called dark ages until the Persian wars 490-480 B.C.
Is characterized as times where sculptors seek their own style and technique. We can find archaic sculptures prior to this period which are very simple. At first they performed Small votive offerings and xoanas (sculptures carved on the own trunk of the tree).
Subsequently the first large format sculptures made in stone:
– The kouroi or ephebes (singular kourós), figures of naked athletes.
– The korai or girls (koré singular), offering figures of women dressed.
The main features of archaic sculpture are:
– Whole body; hieratic (motionless) attitude.
– Law of the frontality.
– Modeling simple and strong geometrización.
– Statist positions; later only moving a bit his left leg to suggest movement gait, but without getting the feeling of displacement; the arms take off from the body.
– Large almond-shaped eyes.
– Archaic smile or eginética, (facial expression through a forced and conventional gesture which outlines a smile).
– Long hairy head formed based on geometric elements.
– The sculptures were made as an offering to athletes.
– They are dressed, the study of the position of the folds on this sculpture is more important that the anatomy per se for this artist.
– They are statues of religious character, found in the temples.
Lady of Auxerre, for the xoanas.
Hera of Samos, still very archaic.
The Peplos koré and other evolved korai from the 6th century BC.
We can find two types mainly:
– With the Doric peplo (thick robe without folds)
– With Jonick chitón (fine texture and abundant folds) with both feet together; the free hand holds the dress or an offering; archaic smile.
Characteristics of the seventh century BC:
– With the left leg ahead, but without sensation of movement, the soles of both feet are glued to the ground.
– With arms fallen, glued to the body and closed fists.
– Simple modeling (which will evolve into more successful forms).
– With strong geometrización (particularly in hair and torso).
– Disproportions between the different parts of the body.
– With almond and bulging eyes.
– The mouth always closed and “archaic smile” (“smile eginética”). Examples: Cleobis and Bitón.
The kouroi of the 6th century BC: evolve into more rounded shapes, perfecting the anatomical modeling; the geometrización of forms is also lower; there are already soft movements; new elements appear.
– The Moscóforo (young man offering a calf as bearer)
– The Rampín rider, with the head slightly rotated;
– The kourós of Anavyssos.
– the Apollo of Piombino, kouroi with sweeter lines
To this period belong works such as:
– The Kourós of Anavyssos (athlete).
– The Lady of Auxerre or Xoana (young lady dressed).
– The head of the Rampín Knight.
Centuries V and IV B.C, from the Persian wars when they fight against the invading Persian until the end of the Peloponnesian War (404 BC).
This time it meant greater boom in all literary and artistic expressions. The sculptors achieve the perfection of their techniques, as well as the best sculptural pieces, where the magnificence of the human figure is observed.
There are 2 periods with different styles and characteristics:
– Style Sublime, which highlights sculptors such as Myron, Phidias and Policleto,
– Style Bello, highlighting sculptors Scopas, Praxiteles and Lisipo.
CLASSIC (4TH AND 5TH CENTURIES)
In the 5th and 4th centuries ( a.C) Greek sculpture reaches its culmination, creating works that have become models of plastic perfection and beauty at this time.
In this century there is a feverish process of achievements to commemorate the victory over the Persians and to rebuild the destroyed.
The aesthetic aims to translate the beauty ideal, although it is a naturalistic art tends to the idealization, based on the reality archetypes are created. The true protagonist is the naked male body, getting in their realization a total mastery of the anatomy.
The most represented topics belong to the mythical world of the gods and heroes, who are treated with great seriousness. The hieratic positions are definitely lost, making the mobility of the figures a protagonist’s factor to capturing gestures and attitudes. Also leaves the frontality, the sculptures have different viewpoints now.
During the first 50 years of the century V (B.C.) a transition phase towards these goals is found, even with remains of archaism, the “severe style”. We see steps towards anatomical perfection, greater dynamism, and solutions to adapt the sculpture to the space in the pediments; (triangular spaces in the top front of the buildings).
Examples of this period are:
– ThePediments of the Temple of Aphaia in Aegina.
– The Pediments of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (already mentioned above).
– The Reliefs of the Ludovisi throne (Aphrodite’s birth).
– The bronzes of Poseidon.
– The warriors of the Riace.
– The Auriga of Delfos.
The sculptor Kritios:
The highlights of this stage is this sculptor, author of the “Tiranicidas” and the “Efebo” athlete, which is supposed to be the start of the Preclassic period, thanks to the novelty of its position; that is a previous time of “contrapposto”: The figure show a bend knee to support the entire weight of the body in one leg, her anatomy is more realistic, although the hair continues in the same line, short; and the head is not completely straight, but slightly rotated and tilted slightly downward.
From the middle of the 5th century BC begins the “classical stage”.
He works the bronze, although the works that have been preserved are Roman copies in marble, as in the majority of cases we are going to see.
His most famous work is the “Discobolus”, in which Myron proves to be the master of the movement, we are not dealing with the traditional upright posture, instead we are confront with the one who makes it been very daring, captures a moment, the time prior to releasing the disk, the time of maximum effort, therefore the entire body is in tension. The head have the feeling that do not just correspond to the tense of the body since it is too quiet, focused, but serene.
Yours is also the Group of Athena and Marsyas, where Athena is walking and her head looks at the ground at the same point where Marsyas is looking, forming a V, Athena is serene and wears the peplo, Marsyas is a naked figure in tension, which allows to show a powerful musculature.
Also works the bronze. Publishes the “Kanon”, work which is conducting a study of measures and proportions of the human body, the beauty would be in these proportions (the total height of the body is seven times the head) and symmetry. In the “Dorífero”, spear bearer, embodied all his theories: spherical head, proportions and symmetry, classic stance or “contraposto”, erect, with some curvature in the torso and hips to rest the weight on one leg. The” Diadúmeno” has characteristics very similar to the previous sculpture, appears to tie a Ribbon to the temples.
His work is an “wounded Amazon”, awarded at a competition for the decoration of the sanctuary of Ephesus, which competed with “Phidias and Crésilas” towards the middle of the 5th century BC.
Together with Pericles by reconstruction and monumental management of the Acropolis of Athens, it is the sculptor of the gods, which better captures the essence of the divine, author of two gigantic crisoelefantinas sculptures (nucleus of wood with gold and ivory plates):
Best-known works of Phidias:
– The Athena Parthenos, which remains a small Roman marble copy.
– The Athena Farnese, 12 meters of height and it was inside the Parthenon, the armor on his chest, a tunic to the feet, the helmet on the head and a victory of life-size in the hand, its coat of arms showed the “amazonomachy” in relief on the front and the “gigantomachy” painted by the part back.
– Zeus of Olympia, now lost, which was sitting with a victory in the right hand and a scepter in the left hand have around 15 meters is seated, showing a majestic attitude that ensured his immortality.
– Athena Prómachos, bronze, only known from coins, is the Savior and guardian of the city, depicted as a warrior had over 15 meters in height, was located in the middle of the Acropolis.
– The “Lemnian Athena”his best work, whose head has been termed as “beauty” because it corresponds to the canon of beauty perfect of the 5th century BC
– The wounded Amazoncontest of Ephesus.
– Also attributed to Phidias all the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon; (that it will influence the sculptors of the “style Parthenon” “Style Bello”, at the end of the 5th century BC)
– The Frieze of the Doric “metopas”(compositions of two or three figures in high and clear relief)
– The Frieze of the “panathenaic” games(representation Bas-relief of the procession of the “Panathenaea”, on the frieze around the cellar of the Parthenon; is not a schematic representation, the figures looks like they are alive and have and individuality, represented by an idealized naturalism).
– The Pediments of the Parthenon sculptures(excellent compositions, in which the figures fit perfectly to the pediment; in the East pediment represents the Birth of Athena and in the West the fight Athena and Poseidon by Attica; studied Anatomy in the nude and the dresses in the female figures, although through the “technique of wet cloths” again hinted at the Anatomy).
The achievements at the end of the 5th century BC can be classified within a new stage in the evolution of sculpture in the classical stage, the so-called “Parthenon style” or “Style Bello”. There are two important sculptors who correspond to this period:
Among the sculptors ascribed to this period: Made a Bust of Pericles, located on the Acropolis of Athens, with very idealized and Corinthian helmet. Also preserve its Amazon wound of the contest of Ephesus.
His works continue in the line of wet cloth technique inaugurated by Phidias in the Parthenon, Aphrodite Frejus and the relief of the “Win tying the sandal” of the Temple of Athena Nike.
Other examples of the sculpture of this stage: the victory of Paionios, commemorating a victory over the Spartans who collects the time victory sits on the ground, the Tunica conforms fully body and spiraling in the back, being the history of the victory of Samothrace.
Also highlight of anonymous authors, but along the same lines of the above: the wound Nióbide, practically naked feminine sculpture which represents the moment in which she received an arrow in the back and it is struggling to remove her, stands out for the face, reflecting the suffering; and the Hera Barberini.
The Sculpture in Greece in the 4th century BC
It is Times of crisis for the Cities State and disintegration and transformation in the social aspect, after the Peloponnesian War between Sparta and Athens and their respective allies. Athens, despite the political crisis, continued the artistic supremacy in Greece, thanks to a society that is elegant and refined, although in this context the artist works not to the State but for particulars individuals, because the war has sapped resources from the State coffers.
There are changes from the previous century:
– Gods and athletes are still the protagonists, but now represent the gods nearest to man and not to the greats of Olympus.
– Athletes are represented in less heroic, everyday attitudes.
– The figures become freer, less majestic.
– The aesthetic canon is stylized.
– Is heightened naturalism in gestures and attitudes, the faces begun to reflect the “pathos” (its emotional expression and mood);
– The female nude began his appearance.
It is the sculptor of the delicacy, elegance and the beauty of the smooth surfaces. It accentuates the traditional classical stance further tilting the hip, “praxiteliana curve”, though it continues the quietism of the composition. His works are the Hermes of Olympia (one of the few cases in which we retain the original, representing Hermes, the Messenger of the gods, being Dionysus child during a break in the road), the Apollo Sauróctono (further marks the praxiteliana curve and the body is younger), the Aphrodite of Cnidus (which initiates the female nude)(still “shyness” feels shame and is covered with the hands, will be very copied as a female beauty canon); the Arles Aphrodite (naked but with legs covered by a cloak, the nudity is not accepted immediately).
Sculptor of the “pathos”, of the passion reflected in the figures the State of the soul (agitated anguish). Attracted by tragic or pathetic themes that can be seen in works like; his Bacchante or Maenad wound (with the body troubled by convulsive movements, with the torso twisted, rotating the neck backwards, messy hair and revolt). He also made the East of the mausoleum of Halicarnassus reliefs and the statue of Mausolus.
Sculptor of the archaizing, admirer of Polycleitus, but in there naturalism is sharper. The New canon of beauty is more slender, now the body has eight heads, decreasing the size of it, so the body is high in proportion to the width. He cultivated the portrait, it was the sculptor preferred by Alexander the great.
His main works are the Apoxiomeno (athlete cleaning himself with the “estrígilo” example of the new “Kanon” and the final domain of the third dimension and it is an open sculpture because it breaks the space through the great foreshortening of his right arm), the Ares Ludovisi (God of War II seated) and the Farnese Hercules (specially study the anatomical and physical strength).
Among the works of other prominent sculptors of this century we can mention the following:
– Leda and the Swan OfTimothy.
– The Versailles Artemisia.
– The Apollo Belvedere of Leócares.
– The Orante Beads.
HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE (FROM THE 3RD CENTURY BC)
It Goes Since the end of the 4th century (B.C) and from the reign of Alexander the great (336-323 BC) until the conquest of Greece by Rome, in the middle of the second century B.C).
Corresponding to the end of the Greek art , the works of this era taking models from the previous, refine them, showing a great capacity for realization, enters the figure of the child as a subject. The sculpture takes characters of monumentality, overlooking the picturesque, grotesque, the episodic, etc. The portrait takes first place. Different schools emerge in this period.
Most important sculpture schools:
This is the stage of the crisis of the polis, by bundling the constellation of (City-States) in a polity under the Macedonian domain.
In this new political world, organized by the genius of Alexander the great statesman, they have no place the ideals of harmony and measure of the classical Greece and are replaced by new values, Greek culture universalizes, acknowledging the contributions of Eastern peoples with which melts. As a result is obtain a mixed of culture, which mixes the classical traditional Orientale (colosalismo and decorativismo) and a new conception of life, not already based on high ideals but in the search for the enjoyment of everything that life have to offer. Artistically those facts will depart the conquests of the 4th century BC.
– The sculpture is more naturalistic, even arriving at more crude realism occasionally.
– Accentuate the expressiveness of the faces and attitudes.
– The imbalance of the twisted bodies to the serene fidíacas positions is preferred.
– The drama of expressions to the calm faces.
– The ugliness of monsters; threatening the classical beauty.
– More rich points of view,
– It increases the monumentality and variety of the thematic utilizes.
– It tends to the barroquización of the sculpture.
– Now the sculptors are more anonymous, they are working by schools.
– It tends to the barroquización of the sculpture.
Triumph of realism, portrait
They are going to play the individual features of the individual by what realism progresses in portraits, scrawny, sincere and deep psychological penetration.
The school of Alexandria, the allegories: Liked for allegories, as that of The Nile (represents the River as a human figure, surrounded by other elements who identify them).
The school of Pergamum, large compositions: Their great and heroic compositions of pathetic strength and great emotional intensity, as the one of the monument of Atalo (to commemorate the victory over the Gaul’s, some of them are preserved exempt highly realistic figures; (you can even clearly identify their racial traits).
The Reliefs of Pérgamo “Altar of Zeus” are famous; the masterpiece of this type of sculptures. The way that the effects of pain and effort are made to carve the anatomy show the masterly and skills of the artist, the theme is struggling between the gods and the Giants; “the Gigantomachy”.
The school of Rhodes, colosalismo and movement: They like the colossal and gigantic, knotty and expressive movement, especially the gestures of the faces in pain.
– The Colossus of Rhodes (giant sculpture at the entrance of the port of Rhodes, under which passed the ships, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world).
– The Barberini Faun (from an extreme realism) the Winged victory of Samothrace (with folded wings and the body forward, defying the wind, showing a great masters in the study of the clothes, which are made transparent to stick to the body because of the wind).
– Set of Laocoonte (Hagesandros, Polydoros and Athenodoros, famous for its expressiveness and the representation of pain through the anatomy in tension by physical exertion, summary of the Hellenistic Baroque, represents the punishment given to this Trojan priest by doubt of the Trojan horse, killing both him and his children with the sea snakes).
– The sculptural set of the Toro Farnese (done by Apollonios and Taurisci, represents the moment in which the sons of Antiope decide to punish Dirce, who had cruelly treated his mother, dragging a bull to death).
Athens: Highlights the sculptor Apollonius, with works of extreme realism, showing the Hellenistic departure from the classical ideals of the centuries V and IV B.C.
The female nude: Now time of splendor of the item. The beauty of the female form is expressed with soft, sensual positions that accentuate feminine curves, has been observed detail in the hair and clothing and in the fall of the folds.
1. Aphrodite Milo (mutilated, one of the most beautiful and famous
2. Vibrissa Aphrodite (success in Hellenism item).
The child of the oca,
The wrestlers (athletic scene that captures the moment of maximum stress).
The old woman drunk.
Spinario (boy removing a thorn after a sports test.
The lying hermaphrodite.
The subject of children was very successful in this period.
They were frequently decorated with beautiful reliefs in a quiet tone.
Not exaggerated attitudes or convulses body pose.
Males appear to walk in pensive attitude.
Women are always seated, with a dove or observing their personal objects.
The decoration of the relief intent to produce the sensation of 3 d images or exempt sculptures.
The figures show attitude of observation and pensive poses in accordance with the seriousness of the funerary thematic purpose.